Energy Efficiency Methods in the Cement industry – Part 1: Organic Rankine Cycle

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Thomas B. Gibbons takes a look at the Conventional Rankine Cycle’s application in the cement sector

Duane Tilden‘s insight:

>The first major waste heat recovery (WHR) system in a cement plant was the 15 MW unit installed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for Taiheiyo Cement in 1982. This was a conventional Rankine Cycle using heat from both the kiln and the clinker cooler. As the benefits became generally recognised within the industry, WHR units, the vast majority of which involved the conventional Rankine Cycle, were installed to provide up to about 30% of the power requirements of the plant. The main sources of waste heat were the exhaust from both the preheater and the clinker cooler and, in some of the developing countries where power outages are not unusual, the WHR system may be the only source of reliable power available to the plant operator.

Improvement in the overall efficiency of cement manufacture has resulted in lower exhaust gas temperatures and this development has provided opportunities for alternative technologies, notably the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and the Kalina Cycle, which are more effective in recovering waste heat from lower temperature gases.<

See on www.worldcement.com

Applied Thermodynamics: Organic Rankine cycle – Wikipedia

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Duane Tilden‘s insight:

We have all seen the Rankine Cycle engine, most typically as the inefficient steam locomotive.  The modern efficient designs use turbines to convert heat energy from two reservoirs of different temperatures to mechanical energy.

The Organic Rankine Cycle engine uses a fluid – vapor phase change other than water/steam and a wide range of compounds are available including proprietory mixtures.  These mixtures allow for the conversion to mechanical energy in a wide range of applications and temperatures.  Two such applications would be waste heat to energy and geothermal energy systems.

See on en.wikipedia.org

Power plant cancellations: Green Energy Act looms behind gas plant mess | Toronto Star

See on Scoop.itGreen & Sustainable News

The Green Energy Act stripped Ontarians of their right to appeal decisions on locating energy facilities.

Duane Tilden‘s insight:

>Former premier Dalton McGuinty told a legislative committee this week that “there was a faulty selection process for gas plant sites and they were wrongly located and had to be shut down.”

But that faulty process was the result of his much-ballyhooed Green Energy Act. And the cost of the faulty process and the subsequent shutdown of the Oakville and Mississauga sites will be $585 million or more.

[…]

The result is that Ontario electricity rates, at one time among the lowest in North America, are now some of the highest. Ontario residential customers are paying about three times more for electricity than they did when McGuinty took office. Ontario industry, which used to benefit from low electricity costs, is suffering.<

See on www.thestar.com

Two liquid air projects through to feasibility stage of competition | News | gasworld

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Highview Power Storage, an award-winning UK developer of utility scale liquid air energy storage technologies, has had two multi-MW projects successfully put through to the feasibility stage of DECC’s Energy Storage Technology Demonstration…

See on www.gasworld.com

>Project one involves the National Grid, Costain and Highview, for a proposed utility-scale demonstration project of a fully integrated liquid air energy storage plant of up to 6MW output, hosted by National Grid’s Grain Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) site at the Isle of Grain in Kent.

The plant would have around five hours of operation (30MWhs), making it the largest demonstration of new energy storage technology in the UK.<

Norway: A recycling-happy nation in dire need of trash

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Sweden isn’t the only nation in the throes of a serious trash deficit. As it turns out, Norway is also desperately seeking rubbish to burn in its cogeneration plants. Perhaps the U.S. could lend a helping hand?

Duane Tilden‘s insight:

Excerpts…

Norway’s garbage woes aren’t an anomaly in Scandinavia and across Northern Europe where the demand for trash to fuel garbage-burning incinerator plants is high but the supply is devastatingly low due in part to residents’ pertinacious recycling habits. In fact, Northern European countries only produce 150 million tons of trash annually, while the overall capacity of incinerating plants is 700 million tons and growing.

[…] While the burning of garbage is not an environmentally flawless method of producing energy, modern day cogeneration plants are relatively high-tech affairs and the pollution generated is far less than coal. This method also renders landfills nearly irrelevant.

See on www.mnn.com

Is Gasification Better Than Incineration? Read: Global Markets for Gasifiers – WSJ.com

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NEW YORK, April 15, 2013 /PRNewswire/ — Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Global Markets for Gasifiers

Duane Tilden‘s insight:

INTRODUCTION

Gasification is a centuries–old thermochemical energy conversion technology that has slowly achieved modernity over the decades. The technology is undergoing its third evolutionary surge. Fuel shortages in WWII spurred widespread adoption for vehicle fuels. The oil crisis 1973 spurred a re–evaluation and renewed development. Rising oil prices, globally increasing fuel demand, and overwhelming scientific evidence of climate change have spurred this last leg to full industrialization.

The central concept of gasification is that by raising carbon–rich materials to high temperatures in an oxygen–deficient containment, the material will break down thermochemically instead of burning. If the same material is combusted (burned), it emits carbon monoxide and a host of pollutants, besides being incompletely consumed. If gasified, the products are hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). This is synthetic gas, simply called “syngas.” It can be burned, captured, stored, or its molecules rearranged to form fuels and chemical feedstocks.

The process is moderately more efficient than incineration, has significantly fewer emissions and waste, and the syngas can be shaped into a myriad of products for power production, chemical industries, liquid fuels, and heat.

Feedstock for gasification can be coal, the organic components of municipal waste, industrial waste streams, chemical feedstocks, forestry residues, forest products and crop residues, medical waste, unrecycled plastic or, in the case of plasma gasifiers, almost any nonradioactive material.

A gasifier is the central component of a gasification plant. Surrounding it are the feedstock conditioning and delivery systems, oxygen, steam and air input systems, waste removal components, syngas cooling and cleaning systems, power plants, heat recovery units, Fischer–Tropsch molecule rearrangers, and so on. This report focuses on the markets for gasifier units that are in place and will be installed by application segment and geographic location through the year 2017.

See on online.wsj.com

What Will Be the Next Technological Breakthrough in Energy?

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What technological breakthrough is most likely in the next 10 years that could completely change the energy equation as we now see it?

Duane Tilden‘s insight:

Jeffrey Ball: Information Technologies to Increase Efficiency, and Solar Power Seem Promising

Predicting new-energy technological breakthroughs tends to be a fool’s errand. A decade ago, few envisioned the breakthrough that has most rocked the U.S. energy world: the one-two punch of fracking and horizontal drilling that has unlocked huge stores of shale gas from California to New York.

Right now, two broad areas of new energy technology seem particularly promising: information technologies that could spur major energy-efficiency improvements; and cheaper and more-reliable solar power. […]

Study after study has pegged energy efficiency as the lowest-cost way to curb fossil-fuel consumption and the resulting greenhouse-gas emissions. The problem has been figuring out how to unlock those efficiency improvements in the real world. Today, creative minds are at work developing electronic systems to track and display the energy use of institutional and individual consumers in ways that could make those users much more conscious both about how much energy they consume and about precisely what they could do to cost-effectively consume less. More information, in short, could equal less power.

See on online.wsj.com

Town looks at way to dispose of its sludge

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GREENFIELD — The town is looking at how it might dispose of its own sludge in the future to save

Duane Tilden‘s insight:

Town officials believe an anaerobic digester and combined heat and power facility would eliminate the costs associated with shipping the wet solids, as well as the cost to heat and provide electricity to the transfer station.

This is not just a matter of saving money, though,” said Collins. “It is also a social justice issue. A lot of these plants, like the ones we transport to, are closing down. We really need to be dealing with our own sludge, not sending it off into other communities.”

[…]  anaerobic digestion is a natural process where sludge (plant and animal waste) is broken down by micro organisms, which release the methane, or biogas, that can be used to generate heat and electricity.

“This helps cut fossil fuel use and reduce greenhouse gas emissions,”[…] “The remaining material is rich in nutrients and can be used as fertilizer.”

See on www.recorder.com

Alliance Pipeline partners with GE to turn waste heat into energy

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Whitecourt project is a first for the Calgary-based pipeline company

Duane Tilden‘s insight:

 The Whitecourt Recovered Energy Project captures exhaust heat from Alliance’s compressor stations northwest of Edmonton. The heat is transferred into a closed loop system and powers one of three 40,000-horsepower gas turbines at the site. The power system creates 14 megawatts of baseload electricity. It is expected to be tied into the provincial power grid in May 2013.

See on www.albertaoilmagazine.com

Waste Heat to Energy Firm to Buy Landfill for $9m – Waste Management World

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Largo, Florida based GDT Tek, a specialist in the use of the use of the Organic Rankin Cycle principal to generate electricity has entered into an agreement in principal to purchase 100% of a landfill gas to energy company.

Duane Tilden‘s insight:

According to the company its system has been proven through a long-term five year installation at a San Jose, California landfill, where waste heat captured from the generator’s engine exhaust and cooling systems is used to generate electricity which is then sold to the grid.

“This acquisition once completed will allow GDT Tek to install our Phoenix units at the landfill location and increase revenue by up to 20%,” explained Bo Linton, President of GDT Tek.

See on www.waste-management-world.com