California adopts nation’s first energy-efficiency rules for computers

The California Energy Commission has passed energy-efficiency standards for computers and monitors in an effort to reduce power costs, becoming the first state in the nation to adopt such rules. Th…

Source: California adopts nation’s first energy-efficiency rules for computers

Why I did not upgrade to Windows 10


I am so happy to see those nag messages disappear from my computer, you know the ones reminding you that your period of time to upgrade to Windows 10 will expire on July 31?   Now that we are in August one less thing popping up that bothers me.

The question being do I upgrade or not?  And friends and family who look to me for advice on such issues want to know what I am doing and why.  Intuitively I felt that upgrading was unwise likely do to past experiences with O/S upgrades and backward compatibility of existing hardware and external devices.

Coolpix 995

For example, I own an older Nikon digital camera, Coolpix 995, which is a newer version of my first digital camera, a Coolpix 990.  Getting software that works for this camera for versions of Windows newer than XP has currently been a challenge.  Driver’s are not available for Windows Vista, 7 and definitely not for Window’s 10.  So such is likely for any devices I currently own.

Also, I like to buy used equipment at bargain prices.  I have learned through my own experience that electronic equipment has a short shelf life and prices drop quickly as newer versions of equipment enter the market.  By creating obsolescence in software, hardware becomes prematurely unusable due to compatibility issues.  When this occurs the current solution is usually to discard the item and buy a new replacement.


Another thing besides compatibility and premature obsolescence is extra work and other unknown issues which will inevitably arise from the upgrade.  I have an ‘Elitebook’ HP 8530 W laptop computer with Window’s 7 for my business and personal use, which I purchased for a bargain on Ebay.  I have spent a lot of time setting it up to work properly, I have no need to upgrade the software.

Let someone else figure it all out, then maybe in a couple of years I will buy a more powerful model at a lower price with Windows 10 or the current version already installed.   So I did not upgrade, and I am okay with that.




Exploring the Vast Cyber-Space Information Realms of Clearnets and Darknets

Thoughts on Crawling and Understanding the Darknet

Sourced through from:

>” […]

Darknets have been around for a decade or so. Some of the most well-known are from the Tor network; Silk Road, Wikileaks, Silk Road 2, StrongBox, and so on. For good or bad, Silk Road is what helped bring darknets to the masses.

The current trend in information security is to try to build insight and intelligence into and from the underground or the darknet. Many companies are focused on the “darknet.” The idea is to learn about what’s below the surface, or near-future attacks or threats, before they affect the normal companies and people of the world. For example, an intelligence agency wants to learn about clandestine operations in its borders, or a financial company wants to learn about attacks on its services and customers before anyone else.

I’m defining the darknet as any services which requires special software to access the service, such as;
1. Tor’s hidden services,
2. I2P,
3. FreeNet, and
4. GnuNet.

There are many more services out there, but in effect they all require special software to access content or services in their own address space.

Most darknet systems are really overlay networks on top of TCP/IP, or UDP/IP. The goal is to create a different addressing system than simply using IP addresses (of either v4 or v6 flavor).XMPP could also be considered an overlay network, but not a darknet, for example. XMPP shouldn’t be considered a darknet because it relies heavily on public IPv4/IPv6 addressing to function. It’s also trivial to learn detailed metadata about conversations from either watching an XMPP stream, or XMPP server.

The vastness of address spaces

Let’s expand on address space. In the “clearnet” we have IP addresses of two flavors, IPv4 and IPv6. Most people are familiar with IPv4, the classic address. IPv6 addresses are long in order to create a vast address space for the world to use, for say, the Internet of Things, or a few trillion devices all online at once. IPv6 is actually fun and fantastic, especially when paired with IPSec, but this is a topic for another post. IPv4 address space is 32-bit large, or roughly 4.3 billion addresses. IPv6 address space is 128-bits large, or trillions on trillions of addresses. There are some quirks to IPv4 which let us use more than 4.3 billion addresses, but the scale of the spaces is what we care about most. IPv6 is vastly larger. Overlay networks are built to create, or use, different properties of an address space. Rather than going to a global governing body and asking for a slice of the space to call your own, an overlay network can let you do that without a central authority, in general.

Defining darknets

There are other definitions or nomenclature for darknets, such as the deep web:

noun 1. the portion of the Internet that is hidden from conventional search engines, as by encryption; the aggregate of unindexed websites: private databases and other unlinked content on the deep web.

Basically, the content you won’t find on Google, Bing, or Yahoo no matter how advanced your search prowess.

How big is the darknet?

No one knows how large is the darknet. By definition, it’s not easy to find services or content. However, there are a number of people working to figure out the scope, size, and to further classify content found on it. There are a few amateur sites trying to index various darknets; such as Ahmia, and others only reachable with darknet software. There are some researchers working on the topic as well, see Dr. Owen’s video presentation, Tor: Hidden Services and Deanonymisation. A public example is DARPA MEMEX. Their open catalog of tools is a fine starting point. […]”<

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Google Gives San Francisco Free Wi-Fi in Public Places

“On Wednesday, San Franciscans were able to hook their gadgets up to free Wi-Fi that launched in 32 new public locations.”


On Wednesday, San Franciscans were able to hook their gadgets up to free Wi-Fi that launched in 32 new public locations. All that connectivity was funded by a $608,000 check from Google, in a move that could be seen as the tech behemoth taking steps to foster goodwill amid complaints of rapid gentrification fueled by the tech boom of Silicon Valley.

The free WiFi now available in San Francisco’s playgrounds, recreation centers, plazas and parks also fits in with the company’s long-standing promotion of Internet access in the U.S. and around the world. But lately politicians have more urgently encouraged big tech companies to show serious generosity, in both talent and funds, hoping to ameliorate the tensions that led to protests around “Google buses” earlier in the year.

In this case, after being approached by Mark Farrell, a member of San Francisco’s Board of Supervisors, Google agreed to underwrite his…

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